HONG KONG (Reuters) – The Hong Kong stock exchange operator’s 2021 net profit rose 9% but missed expectations, as China’s regulatory crackdowns resulted in fewer listings and struggling markets hurt its investment income.

Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing reported on Thursday a full-year net profit of HK$12.5 billion ($1.60 billion), up from 2020’s HK$11.51 billion, but smaller than the HK$13.1 billion average of 27 analysts compiled by Refinitiv.

($1 = 7.8077 Hong Kong dollars)

(Reporting by Alun John and Selena Li in Hong Kong; Editing by Muralikumar Anantharaman)